Origin: Russia, Altai
Dioecious Nettle (lat. Urtica urens L.) is a perennial dioeciously herbaceous plant with a long rootstock. Stems erect, obtuse, furrowed, with hard burning hairs. The leaves are opposite, ovate-lanceolate, large-filiform, covered with burning hairs. The flowers are small, single-sexed, green, with a simple four-part perianth. Male flowers with four stamens, female flowers with a single pistil, with a sessile stigma. Inflorescences axillary, long, spikelike, hanging. The fruit is an ovoid nut. Height 30 – 150 cm.
Stinging nettle is a monoecious annual herb with a branched stem. The leaves are ovate-elliptic, acute, incisodentate, covered with stinging hairs. Flowers are small, green, with a simple perianth, staminate and pistillate. The flowers are collected in a spike-shaped inflorescence, which is shorter or same in length to the leaf petioles. In dioecious nettle, in comparison with stinging nettle, spikelike inflorescences are hanging and longer than the leaf petioles. Height 15 – 60 cm.
The time of flowering. June-August.
Distribution. It is found almost throughout the Europe and Asia.
Habitat. It grows on the edges of forests, gardens, shrubs, riverbanks, ravines, wasteland, near living space and roads.
The part used. Leaves and roots with rootstocks.
The time of collection. Leaves are collected in June-August, roots-in late autumn.
Dioecious nettle leaves contain formic, Pantothenic, Gallus acids, urticin glucoside, gum mastic, tannins and protein substances, mineral salts, iron, ascorbic (vitamin C -150 – 200 mg), various carotenoids (up to 50 mg), menadiol (vitamin K- up to 400 biological units in 1 g), vitamin B2, protoporphyrin, coproporphyrin, sitosterin, histamine, chlorophyll (2 – 5%) and phytoncides. Stinging nettle has a similar composition, but has not been studied enough.
Nettle is widely used in folk medicine in various countries. Russian medicine used it in the XVII century and highly valued it as a good hemostatic and wound healing agent. Nettle has a diuretic, weak laxative, expectorant, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, analgesic, "blood purifying", hemostatic and wound healing effects. It increases the activity of the digestive glands and the secretion of milk in nursing women. Nettle increases the percentage of hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in the blood.
There are indications that the decoction of leaves can lower the blood sugar content. In Russian folk medicine and folk medicine of other countries, water infusion and decoction of nettle are used for diseases of the liver and bile ducts, kidney stones, dysentery, dropsy, chronic persistent constipation, colds, respiratory diseases, hemorrhoids, acute articular rheumatic disease, muscular rheumatic disease, gout. Nettle infusion is also used as an internal "blood purifier" that improves the blood composition in the treatment of various skin diseases (lichens, acne, boils). Decoction of leaves with barley flour is drunk for chest pains. In a mixture with other herbs, nettle is used for tuberculosis of the lungs. Nettle leaves are part of various gastric, laxative and multivitamin collections. Water infusion of nettle has long been used in folk medicine for hemorrhoidal, uterine, pulmonary and intestinal bleeding.
In recent years, nettle has also been used in scientific medicine for uterine and intestinal bleeding in the form of a liquid extract. Clinical testing has shown that it does not cause any harmful effects. The liquid extract also has a diuretic, febrifuge and anti-inflammatory effect. Nettle extract regulates menstruation and reduces blood loss from them. To increase blood clotting, it is recommended to use a mixture of liquid extracts of nettle and yarrow. The hemostatic effect of nettle is explained by the presence of a special anti-hemorrhagic menadiol (vitamin K), as well as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tannins substations.
Decoction of rhizomes and roots of nettle dioecious in folk medicine is used inside for boils, hemorrhoids and leg edema, and root infusion as a heart remedy. Sugar-coated nettle rootstocks are also used for coughing. Infusion of stinging nettle roots is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Infusion of nettle flowers dioecious in the form of tea is drunk from suffocation and coughing for expectoration and resorption of sputum.
Nettle is not only internal, but also external hemostatic and wound healing agent. Infected wounds are more likely to get cleanse of purulence and heal faster if they are sprinkled with nettle powder or applied to them with fresh leaves. Decoction of the entire plant is used externally for washing and compresses for tumors. Dried and crushed leaves are used for nosebleeds, and fresh leaves destroy warts. In France, nettle infusion is rubbed into the scalp to grow and strengthen hair when it falls out. Even in remote times, nettle in folk medicine was used as a skin irritant (that is, a factor in reflex therapy).
Nettle leaves due to the content of phytoncides in them have the property of preserving highly perishable food products (for example, gutted fish, stuffed and covered with nettle, are preserved for a very long time). Young shoots of nettle (stems and leaves) are used for cooking green cabbage soup. In the Caucasus, tasty national meals are prepared from boiled crushed nettle leaves mixed with crushed walnuts and spices.
Nettle is also a very valuable pet food. It encourages their growth and development. Cows, receiving nettle, give more milk and better quality. In chickens, egg production increases. From bast fiber of the nettle can be made of coarse cloth (jute sack) and cord. Nettle has a multi-sided effect on the human body and deserves wide application in scientific medicine.
1. 1 tablespoon of dry nettle leaves infuse 1 hour in 1 glass of boiling water, strain. Take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day 1/2 hour before meals.
2. 1 tablespoon of dry nettle leaves infuse 1 hour in 1 glass of boiling water, strain. With the infusion, moisten the head after washing and rub it lightly into the skin, do not wipe the head. Rubbing is applied for several months, repeating them every week Use for hair loss to strengthen and grow.
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