A perennial herb with a short rhizome and numerous thin roots. Stems are reddish, simple or branched. The lower leaves are in the form of a rosette, oblong-ovate, with a drawn top, hard, rough, with five protruding veins. Stem leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, pointed, with three veins. Flower baskets are large, single, with a three-row wrapper of lanceolate leaves. Marginal flowers in the basket are purple or dirty-crimson, infertile, ligulate, median-tubular, dark red, with five denticles at the top. There are five stamens, a pistil with two stigmas and a lower ovary. The fruit is a grayish-brown achene. Height 60 – 100 cm.
The time of flowering. July-August.
The part used. Flower baskets and rhizomes with roots.
The time of collection. Flower baskets are collected in July-August, rhizomes with roots-in late autumn.
All parts of the plant contain essential oil (flower baskets-0.13-0.48%). The composition of essential oil is sesquiterpenes. The roots contain glucoside echinacoside, betaine, resin, organic acids-palmitic, linoleic, cerotinic and other phytosterols.
Water infusion of roots and flower baskets has an analgesic and antiseptic effect, effectively stimulates granulation of tissues, increases the activity of phagocytes and significantly accelerates the healing process of wounds and ulcers. In folk medicine of many countries, Echinacea purpurea is used as an external remedy for boils, carbuncles, purulent wounds and ulcers, and especially for burns. Inside, Echinacea is taken for infectious and septic diseases. It has been established that Echinacea preparations are not poisonous.
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